Elucidating the structure

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Many motile bacteria have rotating fiber (flagellum) generating from a cell surface which functions like a screw and create a driving force to move or swim.

At the proximal end of flagellum there is a rotary motor which is composed of a rotor and a stator and ions, Na or H , flow into cells by way of the stator.

On the other hand, β-keratin has not been investigated as comprehensively.

The elucidation of species diversity and connectivity is essential for conserving coral reef communities and for understanding the characteristics of coral populations.

To assess the species diversity, intraspecific genetic diversity, and genetic differentiation among populations of the brooding coral spp., we conducted phylogenetic and population genetic analyses using a mitochondrial DNA control region and microsatellites at ten sites in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

At least three genetic lineages of , but these may have included multiple, genetically distinct species.

Although sexual reproduction maintains the populations of all the genetic lineages, Seriatopora-A and Seriatopora-C had lower genetic diversity than Seriatopora-B.

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